Baluchistan is one of the four provinces of Pakistan; it is situated in the south-western region and it is the largest capital of the province. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan. It shares borders with Sindh to the southeast, Arabian Sea to the south, Punjab and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the northeast, Iran to the west and in north Afghanistan.
There are different tribes residing together such as Balochs, Pashtuns, Turkmens, the Uzbeks, Balochs, Hazaras, Sindhis, and Punjabis etc. The name “Balochistan” means is “the land of the Baloch” in different regional languages.
The regions are all underdeveloped and mostly prevalent by natural resources. The natural gas fields which supply gas to the entire country. There is a huge role of Gwadar Port when it comes to economic development of the province. The presence of unique culture and dry desert climate as well as Sulaiman Mountains is the major features of the Balochistan.
Balochistan has the most of the part of the Iranian Plateau situated in the south-eastern part of the country. This region is known for farming settlements in the pre-Indus Valley Civilization era. Earlier one was Mehrgarh which was there in 7000 BC. But today situated in the modern day Balochistan.
It is important part which falls in the westernmost extent of Indus Valley Civilization. It was in 7th century that Islam came and some parts of Balochistan were under the reign of Paratarajas, the Indo-Scythian dynasty. If one goes through the theory of the origin of the Baloch people, he or she would find that this largest ethnic group of the region is mainly of Median descent.
#How Islam came:
It was in 654 that Abdul Rehman Ibn Samrah the then governor of Sistan along with the Rashidun Caliphate the newly emerged one sent Islamic army. It was only to crush the revolt in Zaranj at the expense of Byzantine and Sassanid Persia. Now zaranj became the southern part of the country, Afghanistan. After crushing out the revolt the army further moved to north and conquered both the Kabul and Ghazni in the Hindu Kush mountain range. Some parted towards Quetta District in the north-western Baluchistan and brought the area of Dawar and Qandabil under them. This is how the Islam came there and spread.
#Disputes with Pakistan
The disputes of Balochistan with Pakistan is all about a guerrilla war where the nationalists of the country are against the Pakistan government and Iran. It actually covers the area of southwestern province lying in Pakistan, Iran including the provincial part of Sistan and Balochistan. People of Baluchistan want greater autonomy. They also demand the increased royalties from the natural resources accompanied by provincial revenue. They also further demand the independent nation state from Pakistan.
Several activists of human right claim that nationalist militants and governments of both Iran and Pakistan have violated the human rights and often abused. Baluchistan became tense when Shia group was targeted and attacked in 2010 by sectarian groups. There were constant wars between the group and governments. The nationalists militants even destroyed and attacked the Government building of Pakistan and even killed some of the officials of Government. The region lying under Pakistan seems to be the poorest region by far. Local people say that the Government of Pakistan is responsible for such UN-development. As Pakistan wants to keep them poor and weak. But some experts say that due to ongoing tension and insurgency, no companies are willing to invest in the region.